Ulaanbaatar is the located of the shore of river the Tuul, surrounded with the Bogd khan, Bayanzurkh Khairkhan , Songino Khairkhan, Chingiltei Khairkakhan, elevated 1351 m high above sea level.
Bogd khan mountain has many mountain passes with springs and small rivers such as Yargait, Deed undur uul, Bumbat, Chuluut, Baga tenger valley, Ikh tenger valleys lie in the south side of the mountain.
The 1845 m elevated Tsogtchandmani mountain, located on the eastern edge of Ulaanbaatar city and the southwestern edge of the Khentii mountains ranges, is a dividing point of the arctic, pacific, and the central asian Endorheic drainage basins. There it is not only Mongolian, but also the worlds important dranage basins dividing point. Nalaikh district is rich with coal deposits, Arjanchivlan is rich with cold and lead deposits, river Selbe is also rich as cold and iron deposits.
The city features brief, and warm summer or long, bitterly cold and dry winters. The coldest temperature on January is between – 33-36 degrees without wind, depends on temperature inversion, falls from June to September. The highest recorded precipitation in the city was 659 mm (26 in) at the Khureltogoot (Astronomical Observatory) on Mount Bogd Khan Uul.